Chapter 11

Wort Boiling

(selected excerpts)

Following wort separation and extraction of the carbohydrates, proteins, and yeast nutrients from the mash, the clear wort must be conditioned by boiling in the kettle. This chapter covers the biochemical changes that occur during wort boiling, the types of kettle additives, hop and trub removal as well as the types of wort boiling systems used in brewing beer.

Click on the following topics for more information on wort boiling.

Within This Chapter: Wort Boiling

  • Introduction to Wort Boiling
  • Biochemical Changes
  • Sterilization
  • Enzyme Inactivation
  • Protein Precipitation
  • Color Development
  • Production of Melanoidins
  • Oxidation of Polyphenols
  • Carmelization of Sugars
  • Isomerization
  • Dissipation of Volatile Constituents
  • Concentration of Wort
  • Reduction in pH
  • Formation of Hot Break
  • Factors Affecting Quantity of Hot Break
  • Factors Affecting Quality of Hot Break
  • Qualitative Assessment of Hot Break
  • Kettle Additives
  • Hops
  • Timing
  • Finish Hopping
  • Dosage Procedures
  • Rates
  • Copper Finings
  • Dosage Rate
  • Choice of Material
  • Timing
  • Dosage Procedures
  • Acids
  • Tannic Acid
  • Lactic Acid
  • Calcium Sulfate or Calcium Chloride
  • Syrups and Sugars
  • Flavorings
  • Wort Boiling Systems
  • Kettle Designs
  • Direct-Fired Kettles
  • Kettles with External Heating Jackets
  • Kettles with Internal Heating Systems
  • Kettles with External Wort Boilers
  • Methods of Heating
  • Hot Wort Clarification
  • Whole Hop Separation
  • Hop Back
  • Hop Separator (Strainer)
  • Hot Trub Separation
  • Coolship
  • Settling Tanks
  • Centrifuge
  • Whirlpool
  • Brew Kettle/Whirlpool
  • Calculations
  • References